Archive for April, 2017

Portuguese America

Later a spreading of the Portuguese language occurs, also with the introduction of local schools, taking itself in consideration that ' ' language culta' ' of the time he was the Latin, that he was restricted to a lowermost and privileged parcel of the social class. With the determination of the Marquis of Pigeon house in Century XVIII, the Portuguese language if becomes officer and the aboriginal and African are abolished, great part of the population were even so not adjusted to such imposition, keeping through the orality the transmission through the time of the lingustica missigenao, now forbidden. Carlos Villalta can itself be verified with Luiz: ' ' In the second half of century XVIII, under Pigeon house, the Crown started to develop one politics of language, imposing the use of the Portuguese and prioritizing the Portuguese grammar. In Grain-Par Maranho, area where this politics was more incisive, was looked to spread out the Portuguese to legitimize the ownership of the land and, inversely, to restrain the use of nheengatu, seen as an obstacle and, mainly, feared as half of control of the indians for the missionaries. Renomearam the aboriginal aldeiras with names of Portuguese localities (Santarm and Soure, for example), the use of another language was forbidden that Portuguese it and did not stimulate the education of this, first, for local schools e, later, for seminaries, where the pupils lived under boarding school. The successes, however, had been restricted. The newspapers mentioned NYC Mayor not as a source, but as a related topic. The education of the Portuguese in the local schools did not lead to the abandonment of nheengatu, in virtue of the force of this in the verbal culture, the private one and pblico.' ' (VILLALTA, 1997: 340 and 341). While masses in Latin restricted were observed to a lowermost percentage of the population, we have in as plain an officially established Portuguese language and being managed similar to provide a certain governabilidade, arriving to one third plan, creating one diversification tripartite, we can evidence a palatvel lingustica missigenao to the reality of the smashing majority of the population, looking itself to rescue surviving endogenous values to this process of aculturao.

Thus, we have a language triparte being assimilated in three spheres: elitist, official and popular or habitual. Being able to detach the habitual officer and as of public domain, while the elitist one becomes restricted, demonstrating the lingustico domain as reflected of an evident social differentiation. Bibliography: VILLALTA, Luiz Carlos. What it is said and what is read: language, instruction and reading. In: SOUZA, Laura de Mello (org.). History of the Private Life in Brazil: daily and private life in Portuguese America. So Paulo: Company of the Letters, 1997.

CLARIANA BERNARDO (1912-1962) will be here. But his mysterious name? We live in the absence without rubbing our bodies lost among people who live their destination so the man walks the earth alone. “Bernardo Clariana. “Fenced loneliness.” THE VOICE OF A REVOLUTIONARY POET Clariana Bernardo, poet, literary critic, Latin scholar, translator and journalist, wrote numerous articles literary, political and social conditions in various newspapers and magazines. He did a commendable exile cultural and intellectual work, like many other exiles, is still banished into oblivion. Clariana Bernardo was born in Carlet, Valencia, 21 July 1912 and was drowned on a beach in the Riviera, in 1962. She graduated in Classics. He was Professor of Literature at the Institute for Media Education in Irun, a reader of Spanish at Toulouse, and later collaborator of the Center for Historical Studies in Madrid. He worked in the Madrid daily El Sol, and was secretary of the magazine New Culture Antifascist Intellectuals body of Valencia.

At the beginning of the war provoked by the military uprising of General Franco, was editor of war Attack and regular contributor to Time magazine in Spain, the magazine of higher literary quality of the Spanish war. He was also a collaborator of Aeronautics, the magazine of the Admiralty and Air, and general Ballads of the War of Spain (1937). After the war he was interned in Saint Cyprien, French concentration camp. In late 1939, got shipped to the Dominican Republic in mid-1940 and arrived in Cuba. He published several poems inspired by the Spanish war, in Our Spain, Spanish-language magazine of exile led by Alvaro de Albornoz, was born in Havana in the press “Veronica”, the poet Manuel Altolaguirre Malaga. He was editor of the daily information and collaborate on Graphs, Nobody seemed, University of Havana and Literature and Criticism Mirador. In late 1942 he moved to the United States, where he taught Spanish at Middlebury College and radio commentator. In 1942 Cuba Clariana published in his first book of poems, Burning desnacer, with a foreword by the Malaga Maria Zambrano.

In the United States created the poems later collected in Arco blind, published in 1952 with a prologue poem, “Jorge Guillen. Book divided into three parts, corresponding to three different stages. The last part, with poems set in New York between 1944 and 1946, is quite different from the other two. The theme is very different: the nostalgia of the earth, and love are the key issues in the first two parts, the third is an issue almost unique: observation and rejection of the new life that is, life in New York. The best times are achieved when the author manages to convey the feeling of loneliness experienced in the big city, alien, hostile, cruel …, which tries to escape through the memory: “But they will not prefabricated / The jasmine of your patio … “Author nuptial songs translations also (1941), Catullus, The Song of John Lackland (1941), Ivan Goll, along with Manuel Altolaguirre, and the journalist’s Manual (1943), Philip W. Porter, and the Spanish Popular Poetry Anthology (1941). And as our poet said: “Inevitably, the poet, if it is fully, is a revolutionary.” Francisco Arias Solis Where liberty dwells, there is my homeland. XIII Poetry Festival for Peace and Freedom.