The so-called cognitive distortions, fall within the cognitive-behavioral therapies are identified forms of error in the processing or perception of information. Play a predominant role in psychopathology to produce emotional disturbance, as the person who lives, experienced as reality. The first list was given by Albert Ellis and was extended by Aaron T. Beck, although previously other authors and writers had already studied. In the ABC model (Event – Belief = belief – ing emotional consequences) Ellis, cognitive distortions would be the determining maladaptive beliefs that would produce the disturbance.

These distortions has been associated with logical fallacies, in any case is a bug in the handling of information processes, and therefore, is linked to rationality and critical thinking disturbances. Learning to deal with these distortions and its consequent negative thoughts, restructuring is known therapeutically as impoverishing perceptions cognitiva.Estas performed the patient about himself, the world and the future, lead him to develop phobias, depression, self-esteem problems, obsession, etc.. A cognitive-behavioral therapist shows the patient that his perception of the world at any given time is only one of the possible ways of perceiving the same world, and certainly not the most enriching. The therapist helps the patient develop alternative thoughts and to consider alternative ways to deal with the situation that is problematic in the real world. The therapist helps the patient learn to question the models of the patient's world and helps you to find solutions to their problems that were not in their model, so the patient sees that it is "not there" solutions, but only he had not seen.