Russian settlement – the most fascinating chapter in the evolution of culture of Russia. Variety of items in hoards, although much of their specificity, makes it possible to use objects for study various facets of ancient culture. For art, the history of Russian handicrafts, domestic and foreign trade, Russian history alongside substantive treasures serve excellent historical source. Covered in moment of danger and not dug from the shelter because their owners died, hoards indicate areas exposed to devastation as a result of intense class struggle, the attacks of robbers, various internecine wars. Ancient treasures usually collected from a variety of jewelry items adorned with precious stones, colored enamel designs, fine beading, pearls, created by the hands of nameless Russian masters. Composition reveals treasures artistic tastes of various estates pre-Mongol Russia, ranging from ordinary citizens and ending with the largest members of society. The study of hoards in the early engaged in research Kondakov, he owns seven papers, where treasures set aside the main place.
All books published in the late nineteenth century, however, have drawbacks. Work professors have a tremendous factual material, which gives at present a single value. In the first quarter of the twentieth century the need for a more detailed approach to the study of Russian treasures was obvious. But finding the correct path was not the first attempt. Thanks to the Academy of material culture inherited along with the archive table Michael Kondakova, it was agreed an improved edition.
Creating a study was mandated Gushin, published his work in 1936 published the selection of treasures Gushin was limited previously prepared data, however, randomness and incompleteness of the material did not worry him. Of the total number of treasures he chose only those that were needed to resolve problems troubled him. Interested him, as well as Kondakova, primarily of historical interest, but he studied them, uniquely, has a different way. He tried to justify the local, rather than the eastern or Byzantine appearance of the main part of products that were part of the treasures, trying to identify nature of several Russian cultural schools. However, all these points were based on random material, one-sided and deep, on the material, it is not precisely dated, because of what some of the conclusions it permeated more and sociology and formalism, proved to be wrong. Old Russian settlement on the materials of the 10 th century