Dutch Origins

American author Russell Shorto has presented his new book, Manhattan in Barcelona. The secret history of New York. It’s an essay that dive in the city’s lesser-known past and the impact that the Dutch settlers had in its genesis. American author Russell Shorto presented Friday in Barcelona his new book, Manhattan. The secret history of New York (Duomo), an essay that dive in the city’s lesser-known past and the impact that the Dutch settlers had in its genesis. After an exhaustive investigation, Shorto has discovered that the Dutch were the first to occupy the territory where today lies the city of New York, and that social and cultural patterns of these settlers influenced decisively in the configuration of the city.

The Dutch in New York influence was very important in the 17TH century and settled the bases of tolerance, multiculturalism and commercial freedom that today boasts city, it has secured Shorto at press conference, recalling that during more than half a century the City was known by the name of new Amsterdam. Rudy Giuliani is often quoted on this topic. The writer, who resides in the Dutch capital, has lamented that when Americans think about their own genesis refer to cities in Virginia and New England, and the history of the English and Puritan colonists, but never refer to the past of New York because it is much more complex and varied. Some 10,000 settlers originating from the Netherlands arrived in United States in search of a future better and they realized that they were in a position of weakness against the native Indians, since they were less in number and needed them to market, and do business. Why decided to reach an agreement with the different tribes in the area: there is an urban legend that ensures that the Dutch bought the territory now occupied by New York for $24, but what really happened is that they came to an arrangement of friendship with the Indians, which closed with the transfer of food and utensils for that value, but was rather a ceremonious gift, Shorto has pointed out. The DNA of New York is Dutch after that episode, the Dutch settled the area of Manhattan and established a society based on the maxims of his country – the multiculutralidad, the idea of free trade and freedom of religion-, aspects which were adopted by the British when they conquered the territory and that you have configured the DNA of New York with a very different style from the rest of United States. In addition, the influence of settlers from the Netherlands is still present in the territory between Manhattan and Albany, in a multitude of small details: food, the names of many peoples, and language that some people speak in their homes which is an archaic Dutch, precisely in the 17TH century. History of that half-century is fascinating and turbulent, noted Shorto, who added that that period is starring characters who lived through impossible situations as the last Dutch director-general of the colony, Peter Stuyvesant; lawyer Adriaen Van der Donck, and politician Peter Minuit. All these characters could be the stars of a movie, since the writer has received offers Hollywood to adapt his essay to the big screen, in what could become a prequel to the popular Gangs of New York, has joked. You can buy Manhattan. The secret history of New York in PopularLibors source of the news: the secret history of New York and its Dutch origins

Latin America

It is possible then that politics should raise the tax to the added value (VAT) to the non-agricultural sector, while that for the agricultural sector it should be reduced to the minimum possible. What seems adverse is subsidize the import of agricultural goods or fix prices to national agricultural goods, because it deprimiria the national production and medium term effect can be rather unfavourable to the poor groups in society. Policies of transfer of income these policies can help to expand the possibility of non-agricultural employment in sectors with best salaries; to achieve the transfer of persons engaged in work in the field to the industrial parks near urban areas, then the agricultural added value would be distributed among one smaller number of rural people; However, this transfer of workers from the countryside to the industrial zones, requires that the process of industrialization is broad enough and especially stimulating tasks that privilege the use of less skilled workers and technologies with less capital intensity, i.e.: an industrialization with a less intensive use of machinery and sophisticated technologies, while it may hit short-term productivity and efficiency. Policies to change the relationship between capital cost and the cost of labor alter the relationship between the cost of capital and the wage could apparently benefit to labor, but the policies that achieve changes structural production have, in general, little distributive impact of income. Most of the cities in Latin America, with the exception of Brasilia in Brazil and Ciudad Guayana in Venezuela, grew without any urban planning. Movement and distribution of populations in space and equipment and paths by social demands and without any plan conceived arose. There have been very few cities where the order became more conscious and systematic. Urban land speculation was the standard of those who urbanizaron the cities and the lack of well-paid jobs in the rural zone, produced an avalanche of people towards cities in search of a life expectancy. .


Acupuncture originated in China and for years has become a popular therapy throughout the world. It is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine. Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with Bill de Blasio. The process of acupuncture involves inserting needles at various points in the body. The foundations of the weight loss with natural remedies and alternative medicine revolve around the management of vital energy called Chi or Qi in Chinese. Qi is considered to be the energy of movement of life in Chinese philosophy. For even more opinions, read materials from Teena Lerner. It is probably inherent in all things.

The Chinese theory believed that Qi flows through paths which are known as meridians. There are 20 meridians in the body from which 12 are primary and related to specific functions or to investigate. The other 8 are called secondary meridians. Any imbalance in the flow of Qi with these meridians caused by an obstruction within the body is considered to be the original cause of all disease and health disorders including obesity. There the meridians are used by the specialist of acupuncture to stimulate and restore normal flow and the balance of Qi. This is the process that is used to treat all diseases. Modern science, however, believes that the Acupuncture needles stimulate really the release of endorphins, a natural neuroquimico which has analgesic properties. The increase of endorphins gives a temporary sense of well-being.

As far as weight loss is concerned, acupuncture attempts to restrict appetite and unhealthy desires for food. It also eliminates the excess water from the body and stimulates the pituitary gland, the main gland of the endocrine system, to burn extra fat. An acupuncturist inserts needles five, four point to specific organs, kidneys, liver, lungs and nervous system. The fifth is inserted simply to calm an anxious patient. According to TCM theory, this launches the blocked energy and inhibits appetite and the desire for sweets and assists with general detoxification. The American acupuncturists have developed a process of staples in the ear for weight loss. In this process, only the upper and lower part of each ear is fastened with Staples. This method is less secure than the conventional method of inserting needles because the needles are removed after each session, while the ear staples are left in the ears for several days. The cartilage of the ear is not resistant to infection and therefore is not recommended by the traditional acupuncturists. Treatment of acupuncture for weight loss has been around for years, but there is no scientific evidence of their effectiveness in addition to the release of endorphins. However, is not known to cause harmful effects while you esterilizen the needles. Does not involve the ingestion of any artificial remedy for loss of weight whose efficacy is called into question by the skeptics. In view of these aspects, not seem to be any harm in using acupuncture along with proven credentials weight loss natural supplements and exercise.

Central Asia

United States and several European countries began to include the practices of human rights among its requirements for granting foreign aid. Then, the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 explicitly introduced human rights into the main agenda of relations between United States and the Soviet Union. The cold war came to an end at the end of the 1980s, and the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin on December 25, 1991. The CSCE, which until then was engaged in organizing meetings and conferences, assumed a more important role: managing historic change that was taking place in Europe. It changed its name to the Organization for security and cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and today is the largest organization of regional security in the world, with 56 countries from Europe, Central Asia and North America as members. The Copenhagen Declaration and the Paris principles of the OSCE they have had huge influence as parameters to measure performance on human rights and even the history of the democratic States. The 1970s were also the Decade in which he emerged as a political force international notable organizations non-governmental (NGOs) concerned with human rights those groups, in addition to defend the victims of human rights abuses, have influenced remarkably in national and international policies in this area. There is no doubt, as noted, that with the passage of time, have developed a set of instruments and mechanisms developed to ensure the primacy of human rights and addressing violations of human rights wherever occurring. Not that forget what they said the Secretary-General of the United Nations for the year 2000: the more people are aware of their own rights and respect the rights of others, more likely to be that live together in peace. Only if you instruct the people about human rights can we hope to prevent the violation of those rights and, thereby, also aspire to avoid conflicts. original author and source of the article.

New Mexico Governor

The only thing that would tolerate is being bombarded by lightning to Iran (which is almost impossible to happen), but not a similar to the Iraq stalemate. Although his more realistic speech makes you lose the votes of more progressive sectors of society. Barak Obama: it is the second in intention vote of the Democratic Party. An element in favour, within his party, is that the day carried the vote in the Senate on the Iranian Revolutionary Guard was absent. Obama focused their proposals on cutting taxes on the middle class and the increase of those citizens who have higher incomes. However, he announced that he would invade Pakistan if President Pervez Musharraf failed to control Islamic militants who sympathize with the Taliban. His strategy in Iraq is to gradually withdraw troops.

Believes that the presence of United States.UU. causes more violence, and promised that it will not use the army on humanitarian issues. Bill Richardson: the New Mexico Governor ventured into a controversial topic: reported that it will lift the embargo to Cuba. Presented, also his education plan, that plan to finance with the cut of funds for weapon systems from the period of the Guerra cold promised that goes to withdraw troops from Iraq because they contribute to ethnic violence. In addition, criticized Hillary, Obama and John Edwards by planning the withdrawal of forces from combat in Iraq, but leaving in place other similar. Only the Marines would remain to protect the Embassy in Baghdad John Edwards: former Senator from North Carolina and former candidate for Vice President in 2004. You don’t have many chances to win his opponents in the primaries.

Like the rest of the candidates, pointing his criticism to Hilary, who is more intention to vote has. The main problem with Republicans Republicans profile is know how peel off of the official discourse and the unpopular invasion of Iraq. All slander President Bush, but do not deny that they would act militarily in Pakistan if the situation of the Islamic militants were extreme, although they criticize Obama by have been encouraged to make this statement public. In general, the Republicans not approaching ethnic minorities, with the exception of Cubans, that Traditionally they choose candidates from this party. Rudolf Giuliani: he heads the Republican party polls. It has for the have reduced 56% the rate of crime while he was Mayor of New York. He is the only Republican who does not consider illegal immigration as a federal crime grave, and brags of having developed a computer system that prevents it. Mitt Romney: the main subject of the former Governor of Massachusetts are the 12 million illegal immigrants, who are mostly Mexican. His greatest fight with Giuliani is based on who best controlled taxes when he touched them to govern their respective districts. Fred Thompson: is the candidate that conservatives they would choose and which closer to the ideology of Bush lies. Mildly criticized the war in Iraq, because if it does not it has no chances to win in the primaries. You have positions very traditional, although on several occasions manifested in an ambiguous manner to the legalization of abortion, what removed you much of their voters. To find out who will be the two candidates end will have to wait until the development of primary elections that begin in New Hampshire in December this year and ending in Montana in June of next year.

The Thug Of The Photography

NXEL GROVE in the sample there are pictures of her intimate friend Madonna, Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, David Beckham and Lady Gaga, for whom he directed the clip of Alexander. Klein is the photographer most sought after by the industry of fashion and marketing. The exhibition of Sao Paulo is the largest mounted about his work. To his critics, he is a clown. For friends (Madonna, Lady Gaga and Brad Pitt), among them the last genius. Whatever the verdict, the pockets and the agenda of the American photographer Steven Klein (New York, 1965) are just as full.

During recent years it has become the most sought-after professional by the fashion industry and the marketing of the celebrity. The same signed editorials in magazines more trendy, as W – where put Madonna to do yoga or riding-; makes album covers, like Britney (2001), the third album Studio of Britney Spears or Lady Gaga Alejandro marks the realization of the video clip. Forty photos, two triptychs, 27 Polaroid and various videos now the work of Klein comes to museums with USAnatomy (play on words between the EE UU stands and the word anatomy, Anatomy), an exhibition at the Museu Brasileiro da Esculura de Sao Paulo, the most comprehensive exhibition ever mounted on this controversial photographer. Sample, with forty photos, two large triptychs, 27 images with large format Polaroid film and several videos, is an anthology of the works of Klein in the past fifteen years. Of course, their models remove the hiccups to any fan of the celebrities: Madonna, Angelina Jolie, Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, David Beckham, Natalie Portman, Prince, Naomi Campbell photographer, which has gained in notoriety to be the professional prrido to shape his public image by Madonna – who made pictures of the albums Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005) and Hard Candy (2008), clips for multimedia shows of the tours of the singer and the video installation X-STTIC PRO = CeSS (2003)-, has a style quite thug. Klein likes to play with pop celebrities who portrays, dramatizing shocking situations in appearance (Timberlake appears as a victim of a beating, for example) and using all the manipulative possibilities of digital photography.

The photographer, who refuses to call his style, art it has also fully entered the realm of fashion, managing campaigns for major companies in the sector, such as Calvin Klein, D & G, Alexander McQueen and Nike. Usually take each campaign to shoot short films on video: Lara, Fiction Noir (2009) reached some degree of controversy for his sadomasochistic images. Despite the fame, Klein said in a recent interview that he feels frustrated because do not want you to continue manufacturing dreams about Barbie dolls that have never existed and as a photographer I would like to reflect what is happening in the world.