Different of what still he can be found in the traditionalistic schools, that mere work the passive transmission of the content, Freire defends that the pedagogia must be changed to transform the mind of the pupils who leave of being simple objects to become active and critical citizens, this if extends to the university level mainly, therefore the academic has headquarters for discovering the stranger. Then the figure of the professor as mediating of the knowledge enters, that also searchs perfectioning of the educandos and the worked program, prioritizing the resulted quality and the excellent one in the theoretical applications inside of its space. The complexity alone can be understood according to Morin, will have a junction of the broken paradigms to reformulate and to arrive at a more common and acceptable denominator of the theories already imposed by the scientific discoveries of the last times, so that the traditionalistic academic does not have a shock with the new, becomes necessary that the form mediator not only pacifies and open enverede the content for a question, but for multiple questions that could be analyzed and be criticized, so that the professor takes its proper decisions basing on all on guideline. Thus being the construction of knowing he takes a new route and the practical professor is satisfactory to the eyes of the involved citizens, having then exchanges of experiences and concrete brainstorming inside of the academic space, that grows and develops the intellectual capacity of the beings as active citizens inside of the social process, mainly in the molds capitalist in which we find in them and develop-ours works of research, waiting with everything this to improve the life and the estereotipados concepts of the people who leaves to be mentally ill intellectually.
Some questionings present its force to inquire on the abilities of the professor and the pupil in the actions of the pedagogical process. In this line of reasoning, the function of the professor in the process is looked to clarify which to teach and to learn, as well as the meaning to mediate the learning and to interact with the pupil. The presented text follows a thus articulated linear script: in the first part it appears the pedagogical identity of the professor with its fragilities and potentialities; soon, it is presented reflection that turns around the dialogue as methodology for the apprehension of knowledge; the following item brings information on conceptual maps, following of the reflection on mediation and interaction in Superior Ensino. Finally, the research is presented as one of the work strategies so that the result of the pedagogical action is, also, fruit of the research. 2A PEDAGOGICAL IDENTITY OF the PROFESSOR When studying the question of the classroom from the origin of the model that has predominated in Brazil, Florestan Fernandes (1989, p.142) affirms that: We start for importing French and German ideas, in the end of the last century; we try later also, ' ' reproduzir' ' what in them it seemed to be North American primary education and the iluminista enciclopedismo of according to French degree.
In both imitations we fail. The imported institutions cannot be redefined, in its meaning, structures and functions are of its psicossocial and cultural context. …. In other places, nor this repressive violence of a poor, authoritarian and established escolarizao in a hierarchy of age and devastadora classroom, but only the growth of the ignorance and the brutality that deprived the ascending generations of the systematic learning …. The school? by means of it the classroom? they had continued imprisoned to a predatory conception of the person who is ordered.
The reason why, in all the pertinent studies, if emphasize the importance of one balanced distribution of incomes, mainly of prescriptions taxes, that not desnature the federalism for the economic subjection of the State-members to the Union. In the second part of the book, the master demonstrates with certainty and great knowledge of the historical context of the federalism, that throughout little more than two centuries was modified the conformation of the Federal State in its native land of origin, was transferred to call it dual or cooperative federalism. In this direction, the distribution of abilities in the Federal State is the decentralization in greater or minor degree; to be able them that they had not been delegated to the United States for the Constitution and they had not been forbidden for section to the States will be private, respectively, to the States or the people, what it prevailed in the jurisprudence, orientation that the tenth emendation privileged constitutional American, from there, in the United States, the sprouting of new version of the federalism said cooperative, marked for accented interference of the federal power in exclusive sphere of attributions before considered of the States. The alterations of the relations between Union and States in the North American Federacy that had occurred between 1918 and 1941, for way of rulling wire accurately the addition of the abilities of the Union. In Brazil to the time of the empire, the Brazilian federacy that arrived with the Republic, shaped it the image and similarity of the North American matrix, with the dual federalism with ability sphere stanches enumerated of the Union, remainders of the States, the central power abstaining to intervene with the State subjects. Thus in Brazil the state autonomy in all was exerted widely its consequences, in regards to auto-organization college, the adoption of solution differentiated in the Constitutions of the States and even though how much to the project of separation of powers, the horizontal distribution of the power tributary also delimited the sources of federal and state ingressions, transmudou in cooperative our federative one, basically from the Constitution of 1934, with the addition of the ability of the Union, constitutional emendation n 01/69, restriction of the state ability, constitutional recognition of a field of autonomy to the Cities for the constitutional order of 67/69.
The second Spanish especificidade was a great concentration of wealth gotten through the metal exploration of the New World. Following in this context none another great State absolutist in the Europe Occidental person would come to have a so aristocratic character to the development bourgeois. However due to threat of the Habsburgo domination on the other European dynasties, these if had fortified for the defense against Spain, that is, the Spanish empire finished consequentemente fortifying the other European rival states. That is, the union enters the kingdoms of Castile and Arago gave origin to the birth of the Spanish state, detaching that the kingdom of Castile possua one strong lanfera economy, while the kingdom of Arago was a territorial and commercial power. It agrees to remember that this union according to author possua pparently strong a economic base.
Anderson presents during the text the economic characteristics and politics of Castile. Detaching that Castile was a kingdom in which a senhorial aristocracy predominated, these in turn possuam enormous territorial domnios and formed a powerful military order. Castile was also formed for a considerable number of cities, even so did not have still in this time a fixed capital, however these did not play an excellent economic role. For the author, during Average Age 2 3% of the population controlled about 97% of the ground. This implies to say, that more than a half belonged to one few families of noblemen. With this the author presents the Castilian economic profile, detaching that this producing age of cereals, having intensive practical a pastoral one, consequently the woollen production constituted the base of the richnesses of as many aristocratic houses, what stimulated the urban growth and the commerce with the foreign kingdoms. The kingdom of Arago was divided in three provinces: the province of Arago, that according to author possua the most repressive senhorial system of the Iberian peninsula, therefore, this province had structures feudal dominant.